# How to concatenate vectors in Matlab and Octave

To concatenate and join two or more row vectors in Matlab and Octave write

**v = [v1 v2]**

If v1 and v2 are two column vectors, write

**v = [v1; v2]**

In both cases the result is a vector v with all the elements of the vectors v1 and v2.

**Note**. The elements of the second vector v2 are added at the end of the elements of the first vector v1.

## Examples

**Example 1**

Create a row vector v1

>> v1=[1 2 3]

v1 =

1 2 3

Create another row vector v2

>> v2=[4 5 6 7]

v2 =

4 5 6 7

To concatenate the two vectors, type

>> v=[v1 v2]

The output result is a vector with all the elements of v1 and v2

v =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

**Example 2**

Create a column vector

>> v1=[1; 2; 3]

v1 =

1

2

3

Create another column vector v2

>> v2=[4; 5; 6; 7]

v2 =

4

5

6

7

To concatenate two column vectors write

>> v=[v1;v2]

v =

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

**Example 3**

Create a column vector

>> v1=[1; 2; 3]

v1 =

1

2

3

Create another column vector v2

>> v2=[4; 5; 6; 7]

v2 =

4

5

6

7

Alternatively, to concatenate the two column vectors, it is also possible to transform them into row vectors by transposing

>> v=[v1' v2']

v =

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The result is a row vector v with the elements of v1 and v2.

Finally, transform the row vector v into a column vector with another transposition.

>> v=v'

v =

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

The end result is the same.

**Esempio 4
**

Create a column vector v1

>> v1=[1; 2; 3]

v1 =

1

2

3

Create a row vector v2

>> v2=[4 5 6 7]

v2 =

4 5 6 7

To concatenate the two vectors in a column vector, the first vector must be concatenated with the transposition of the second vector.

>> v=[v1 ; v2']

v =

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

To concatenate the two vectors in a row vector, we need to concatenate the transposition of the first vector with the second vector.

>> v=[v1' v2]

v=

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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